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Edgar J. Kaufmann papers on Fallingwater, 1909-1976 (bulk 1932-1955)

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Preferred Citation

Edgar J. Kaufmann papers on Fallingwater, 1909-1976 (bulk 1932-1955), Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural Fine Arts and Architecture Library, Columbia University.

COinS Metadata available (e.g., for Zotero).

Summary Information

At a Glance

CLIO record: View CLIO record
Creator(s):Kaufmann, Edgar J., 1885-1955.
Title:Edgar J. Kaufmann papers on Fallingwater, 1909-1976 (bulk 1932-1955)
Physical description:2.75 linear feet (5 manuscript boxes, 2 oversize boxes)
Language(s):In English
Access: This collection is available for use by appointment in the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. For further information and to make an appointment, please call (212) 854-4110 or email avery-drawings@libraries.cul.columbia.edu.  More information »

Arrangement

Arrangement

This collection is arranged in five series:

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Description

Scope and Content

The collection consists primarily of correspondence, photographs, project records, architectural drawings, legal documents, periodicals, news clippings and exhibition materials. The material held in this collection relates to architectural projects for Edgar J. Kaufmann by Frank Lloyd Wright, and the bulk of the material relates to Kaufmann’s home, Fallingwater, at Bear Run, Pennsylvania. The collection documents the professional and personal relationship between the Kaufmann family and Wright, from the 1930s until the years preceding Wright’s death in 1959.

Series I: Correspondence

This series contains correspondence pertaining to Frank Lloyd Wright’s projects for Edgar J. Kaufmann, including nearly 500 letters, various telegrams and notes, and related documents, such as engineering drawings and reports, legal documents, photographs, surveys, shipping documents and invoices. The files are arranged chronologically and then by project, where possible. In the cases that projects overlap in the chronology, the files have been arranged hierarchically, with Fallingwater as the most significant project.

Roughly half of the contents of this series is correspondence regarding Fallingwater. Other projects include the Point Park project and Edgar J. Kaufmann’s office in Kaufmann’s Department Store, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the Monona Terrace Project, in Madison, Wisconsin, and the Gateway Center.

The correspondence delineates the personal and professional relationship between Kaufmann and Wright, a relationship fraught with disagreements, insecurities, accusations, money woes, criticisms, and general miscommunications –mostly on the part of Frank Lloyd Wright.

Also included is correspondence related to the construction and later restoration of Fallingwater, including reports and drawings attached to assessments and recommendations from engineers expressing concerns about the construction of the home and later recommendations for the reinforcement of its structural supports.

Series II: Fallingwater (Bear Run, Pa.)

This series comprises photographs, project records, architectural drawings, articles and other printed materials on Frank Lloyd Wright’s master work of residential architecture, Edgar J. Kaufmann’s residence, Fallingwater. These materials were amassed by Kaufmann during the course of Fallingwater’s conception, construction, and subsequent promotion. This series is made up of four subseries described below:

Subseries 1: Photographs : consists of 174 photographs, documenting four stages of the Bear Run property: its previous incarnation as the Kaufmann Summer Camp, the construction of Fallingwater, formal exterior photographs of the completed house, and photographs of the damage caused to the house by a flood in 1956. The photographs are predominantly black and white images of the house alone, though the collection also includes several color photographs and transparencies of Mr. and Mrs. Kaufmann on the terrace in the early 1950s, which aroused delighted surprise in Frank Lloyd Wright (as evidenced in the correspondence), as they were sent to him amid rumors of their possible divorce.

Subseries 2: Project Records : consists of engineering, forestry, wildlife/fish & game reports, property assessments, engineering drawings, site specifications, elevations, survey maps, project cost estimates, product pamphlets, work schedules and inventories.Early property assessments included in the collection were generally favorable, concluding that the site was well-suited to its contemporary function as a summer camp. Documents pertaining to the period during which Fallingwater was actually constructed include estimates and pamphlets related to upholstery and bathrooms, as well as the gatelodge built on the property, though other related documents regarding the construction of the home can be found in the correspondence. Site specifications also include those for the Visitors Center, built after the house was reconceived as a museum

Subseries 3: Architectural Drawings : consists of 147 photomechanical reproductions for the House for Mr. & Mrs. E.J. Kaufmann, Bear Run, Pa.

Subseries 4: Articles & Printed Materials : consists of magazines, newspaper clippings, exhibition catalogs and commercial pamphlets that relate to Fallingwater. Included is a copy of the August 1962 issue of Italian architectural magazine L’archittura, an issue entirely devoted to Fallingwater.

Series III: Other Projects

This series consists of site specifications, proposals, plans and legal contracts for four additional projects: Edgar J. Kaufmann’s office in Kaufmann’s Department Store, the Point View Residences, the Parking Park project, and the unbuilt Joseph H. Brewer residence

Series IV: Other Papers

This series comprises photographs, magazines, newspaper clippings, exhibition catalogs, legal documents, and various writings and printed records of Frank Lloyd Wright and Edgar J. Kaufmann. This series is made up of three subseries described below:

Subseries 1: Photographs : consists of four items, including three black and white photographs of Frank Lloyd Wright, one with Edgar J. Kaufmann; and one color transparency of a photograph by Luke Swank, entitled Tobacco Bar.

Subseries 2: Frank Lloyd Wright : consists of various printed items related to Frank Lloyd Wright’s personal involvements, including the transcript of a speech given by Wright at a Hungry Club event, and a draft of an essay entitled “Music and Its Place in the Museum of Non-Objective Painting,” also by Wright.

Subseries 3: Edgard J. Kaufmann : consists of various printed items related to Edgar J. Kaufmann’s personal involvements, including the deeds to various properties owned by Kaufmann, as well as two documents of his capital investments.

Series V: Articles & Printed Materials

This series consists of printed materials related to various projects, affairs and endeavors of Edgar J. Kaufmann, Edgar Kaufmann, Junior, and Frank Lloyd Wright. These items include magazines, exhibition pamphlets, newspaper clippings, event tickets, phone bills, speech transcripts, prints, and other printed materials.

Of note are the copies of Time with Frank Lloyd Wright on the cover, as well as a collection of newspaper clippings pertaining to the 1976 recovery of stolen art works that had belonged to Edgar J. Kaufmann, including the original plans and sketches for Fallingwater.

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Using the Collection

Access Restrictions

This collection is available for use by appointment in the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. For further information and to make an appointment, please call (212) 854-4110 or email avery-drawings@libraries.cul.columbia.edu.

Restrictions on Use

Permission to publish must by obtained in writing from the Director, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, 1172 Amsterdam Ave., MC 0301, New York, NY 10027.

Preferred Citation

Edgar J. Kaufmann papers on Fallingwater, 1909-1976 (bulk 1932-1955), Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural Fine Arts and Architecture Library, Columbia University.

For Further Information

For more information about using the collections and conducting research in the Department of Drawings & Archives, please see our FAQ.

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About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries. Avery Architecture and Fine Arts Library. Department of Drawings and Archives; machine readable finding aid created by Columbia University Libraries Digital Library Program Division

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Katharine Rovanpera (Archives Intern) under the guidance of Shelley Hayreh, Archivist of Drawings & Archives, Avery Library, in August 2011.

Machine readable finding aid generated from MARC-AMC source via XSLT conversion September 2, 2011 Finding aid written in English.
    2011-09-02 File created.

CLIO ID: 8971977 View CLIO record

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Index Terms

The names and terms listed below are represented in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a consortial/union catalog offered by OCLC that allows users to search the holdings of multiple archives and libraries.

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Subjects

HeadingCUL Archives:
Portal
CUL Collections:
CLIO
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
ArchiveGRID
Kaufmann's Department StorePortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Fallingwater (Pa.)PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Kaufmann House (Bear Run, Pa.)PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Taliesin (Spring Green, Wis.)PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Frank Lloyd Wright FoundationPortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Edgar J. Kaufmann Charitable TrustPortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Western Pennsylvania ConservancyPortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Kaufmann, Edgar J., 1885-1955.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 1867-1959.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Kaufmann, Edgar, 1910-1989.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Tafel, Edgar.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Kaufmann, Liliane S., 1889-1952.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Architecture, Domestic--Pennsylvania--Bear Run.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Architecture--Pennsylvania--Bear Run.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Architecture--Pennsylvania--Pittsburgh.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Dwellings--Pennsylvania--Bear Run.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Correspondence.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Photographs, Black-and-white.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Photographs, Color.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Color transparencies.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Architectural drawings.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Periodicals.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Newspaper clippings.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Land surveys.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Specifications.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Floor plans.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Pamphlets.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Blueprints (reprographic copies).PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Ring binders.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID

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History / Biographical Note

History

Edgar J. Kaufmann was born on November 1, 1885 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He attended the Shady Side Academy and later spent a year studying at Yale University before embarking on an apprenticeship program in retail. In 1909 he married his first cousin, Liliane Kaufmann. That year he discovered Bear Run, which would become the site of their famed residence Fallingwater designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.

Kaufmann took charge of his family’s department store in 1910, the same year that his son, Edgar Junior, was born. He quickly established himself as a formidable businessman, and Kaufmann’s grew to become the most prominent Pittsburgh department store of the 20th Century. During this time, Kaufmann began renting the Bear Run property as a camp for his employees, and purchased it on July 28, 1933 under his wife’s name.

1934 marked the beginning of Edgar J. Kaufmann’s relationship with Frank Lloyd Wright. Kaufmann was active in spearheading New Deal public works initiatives in Pittsburgh, and commissioned Wright for several projects. That year, Edgar Junior went to apprentice with Wright at his workshop, Taliesin, followed by Edgar and Liliane. On December 18, 1934, Kaufmann commissioned Wright to build his residence, Fallingwater, at Bear Run.

Fallingwater was designed in 1935, the initial sketches drawn up in a matter of hours pending the Kaufmanns’ imminent arrival at Taliesin on September 22, Wright having assured them that the plans were ready. In October Wright presented the family with the intricate colored pencil drawings that have been repeatedly invoked in the scholarship on Fallingwater.

The Bear Run property was not without fault, however. Correspondence between Kaufmann and Morris Knowles Engineers in April 1936 delineates several concerns regarding the foundation upon which Fallingwater was to be built: “…we cannot recommend the site as suitable, from a structural standpoint, for a building of importance such as that contemplated.” Ignoring this warning, construction began on Fallingwater in June.

In November 1937, Fallingwater was complete, and Frank Lloyd Wright had reclaimed a level of notoriety that he had not enjoyed in over a decade. Along with his public profile rose Wright’s ego; he remarked to Kaufmann in a letter dated October 25, 1937, “…you got your money’s worth out of an architect if ever a man did and probably for the first time in your life?”

Before Fallingwater was inhabited by the Kaufmanns in December 1937, though, issues with the home began to arise. Allegedly a result of extreme humidity, the interior woodwork began to warp. “We really are not surprised to learn that some of the doors are warped, as Mr. Tafel told our Mr. Cooper recently that the interior of Mr. Kaufman’s house was very wet and that as a matter of fact, the water was running off some of the walls,” the president of Gillen Woodwork Corp. stated in a letter on November 24. The Kaufmanns, scandalized, refuted this contention, blaming Gillen for the flawed doors, and indignantly informing Taliesin apprentice Edgar Tafel of the claims being made in his name: “I am enclosing copies of correspondence since your name occurs in it and simply wish you to be up-to-date on the rumors that are going around.” (December 1, 1937)

In 1938 Fallingwater received extensive praise and criticism, inspiring numerous articles and earning Wright the cover of Time magazine. By the early 1950’s, however, Fallingwater’s detractors were vindicated, as the foundation began to sink. “It may not seem much but it is very noticeable when one looks at the house,” Kaufmann wrote in May 1951.

This period was also marred by instability between Kaufmann and Wright. Correspondence reveals the deterioration of their relationship, as egos and tensions regarding other projects, such as the un-built Point Park, prevailed. “Dear EJ: You are cheating. Cheating me, yes – but most of all cheating yourself … Suppose you had done the same with… Fallingwater. Would you ever have built it? Certainly not…” (December 29, 1949). To Edgar Junior, Wright wrote, “Father seems to be with architects as he is with women. There is no chance for me now. I haven’t the patience to “trail along.” (January 25, 1950)

A month later, Wright’s paranoia regarding Kaufmann’s consultations with other architects reached its apex: “I realize that we will never build any thing more together which is a genuine sorrow to me for I conceived a love for you quite beyond the ordinary relationship of client and Architect. That love gave you Fallingwater... And, E.J. I hope I can at least save you from the funny wilted-prick you would erect … a form of phallic-worship distressing in the extreme with the vulva lying so helpless beneath the poor emblem. I would save you from that caricature as a last service. But probably you have seen it for yourself, by now, anyway.” (February 25, 1950)

1950 also saw discord in the Kaufmanns’ marriage, alluded to by Wright in the correspondence: “Dear Edgar: You have never seemed dearer to us than in this surprise-present you – with Liliane – so generously sent to our work… Is the implication that you and Liliane are reconciled and no violent break-up ahead?” (December 11, 1950). In 1951, Mrs. Kaufmann lamented in a letter to Wright, “…I must leave Fallingwater which is a great sorrow to me.” The Kaufmanns never divorced, however, and Liliane died in 1952.

In the final years of Kaufmann’s life, his friendship with Frank Lloyd Wright remained tumultuous. “My dearest of all Edgars: You are not quite right in the head (or the heart) where this “Pittsburgh-Glass” matters,” Wright wrote in the early 1950’s, referring to a dispute regarding payment for materials used in an exhibition of the architect’s work at the Guggenheim Museum. “Commerce got the better of Beneficence,” Wright sniped in 1953. Finally, in 1954, he offered an olive branch: “Well, I’ve missed you. In spite of your curious reversion to type now and then, I love you and have reason to do so. In the past? When do we meet and blow away the bad odors, etc., etc.”

In 1955, further concerns arose regarding Fallingwater’s structural stability. “…we believe that for some years this structure has been quietly asking for help… and that in the near future it will demand assistance in a more forceful manner,” wrote engineers Hunting, Larsen & Dunnells. Kaufmann died on April 15 that year, and Fallingwater flooded in August 1956. In the years following his father’s death, Edgar Junior assumed responsibility for the home, donating it to the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy in 1963, some time after Wright’s death in 1959. The Conservancy continues to maintain Fallingwater as a museum, and the legacy of the Kaufmann family’s singular relationship with Frank Lloyd Wright endures.

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