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   Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Records, 1904-1989.

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Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Records, 1905-1980; Box and Folder; Carnegie Collections, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

COinS Metadata available (e.g., for Zotero).

Summary Information

Abstract

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT), founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 with a dual mission of a teacher pension fund and an educational research center, played a prominent role in research and development of educational standards. The collection contains records from the "New York" (1904-1980) period of the Foundation's activities.

At a Glance

Bib ID:4079752 View CLIO record
Creator(s):Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
Title:Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Records, 1904-1989.
Physical description:121 linear feet (229 document boxes, 34 oversized boxes, 263 unboxed volumes in Curator’s office)
Language(s):In English
Access: This collection is located offsite. You will need to request this material from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at least two business days in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room.  More information »

Arrangement

Arrangement

Annual reports, bulletins, minutes, cash books and ledgers are arranged chronologically. Publications of both Carnegie Commission on Higher Education and Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education are arranged alphabetically by title.

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Description

Scope and Content

The collection consists of correspondence, memoranda, documents, minutes, reports, manuscripts, cashbooks, ledgers, photographs and printed materials. The correspondence and memoranda are of board members, officers, staff, teachers, educational administrators and researchers. It documents administrative matters; institutions' applications for admission into a teachers pension plan (the precursor of today's TIAA/CREF) and the CFAT-sponsored research and publications. The pension plan files include detailed information about the standards and policies of many American higher education institutions between 1905 and 1930, when CFAT established and then administered the pension system.

The research and publications files document establishment of the Educational Testing Service, development of the Graduate Record Examination, and numerous reports and studies conducted or sponsored by the CFAT's Division of Educational Enquiry (founded in 1913), or by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (organized in 1967) and its successor the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education.

The documents include the CFAT's charter, Acts of Incorporation, By-laws, and minutes, which record meetings of the Board of Trustees, the Executive Committee, the Finance and Administration Committee, the Presidential Search Committee, the Investment Committee, the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education and the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. The cashbooks and ledgers cover the years 1920 through 1979. The photographs are mainly of early board members, officers and staff. The printed materials include newspaper clippings as well as pamphlets, bulletins and books published by the CFAT and the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education.

This collection is closely linked with another archival collection, the Carnegie Corporation of New York Records. Since the founding of Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1911, the organizations shared the office space, administration, and staff. Specifically, the CCNY Records contain an entire series (VI.B), comprised of the CFAT records from 1932-1965. This time period is insufficiently covered by the CFAT Records, so the researchers of this period are strongly advised to consult both collections. The CCNY Records series VI.C contain materials on the Corporation’s founding and support for the TIAA. In addition, numerous grants from Carnegie Corporation to the Carnegie Foundation are documented in CCNY Records Series III.A (grant files), boxes 75-78, 467, 467A and 1108.

Series I: Administration, 1905-1980

Series I contains a mixture of manuscript, typewritten and printed documents on the CFAT administration. The series includes meeting materials for the Board of Trustees and its Committees, financial documents, and internal correspondence files. The records are incomplete, but can be partially supplemented by the Carnegie Corporation of New York Records Series VI.B (CFAT, 1932-1965).

Since the Foundation was for many decades financially and administratively tied to Carnegie Corporation, it is advisable to check the corresponding files in both collections. This is particularly true for financial arrangements. For example, the CFAT never had a separate investment office. After the TIAA was established, Pritchett, as president of both the CFAT and the TIAA (and also 1921-23 president of Carnegie Corporation of New York) worked out a cooperative arrangement among the three organizations. Sam Hall of the TIAA staff was made a part-time assistant treasurer of the CFAT in order to watch over its investments. Incidentally, Hall also advised Pritchett on his personal investments. A joint investment office for the CFAT, Carnegie Corporation, TIAA, Carnegie Institution of Washington and Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was established early in 1936, with each organization paying a share of the costs. It was reorganized in 1939 as the Cooperative Investment office. Carnegie Corporation withdrew at that time; the CFAT withdrew in 1948.

Originally there were separate “minutes” and “subject” folders created for each Committee. In 1978 Florence Anderson destroyed all the pre-1960 executive committee folders, and put the material she considered “worth keeping” into the Minutes, Trustees files, or Internal files.

Letters to trustees regarding committee membership are in the Trustee Correspondence file.

Subseries I.A: Bound Minutes, 1906-1980

Typewritten or printed bound minutes of the CFAT Board of Trustees, Executive Committee, Finance and Administration committees. The Finance Committee changed its name and structure several times: initially known as the Finance Subcommittee of Executive Committee (1932-1940), it becomes Finance Committee (1941-1949), Investment Committee (1950-1971), and finally Finance and Administration Committee during 1972-1980. The files are arranged alphabetically by committee name, then chronologically. In many cases decaying bindings were removed and materials put into folders.

Subseries I.B: Meeting Files, 1905-1980

The series contains both handwritten minutes and official documents, including unbound minutes for the Board of Trustees meetings and its various standing and ad-hoc committees. The files are arranged alphabetically by the committee name, then chronologically.

Subseries I.C: Internal Files, 1905-1980

Subject files, arranged alphabetically by title, contain administrative correspondence, original and updated versions of CFAT charter and by-laws, files on legal and financial matters (such as banking, tax, and auditing), government investigations of the foundations, corporate history notes and anniversary celebrations. Related material on many of these subjects can be found in Carnegie Corporation of New York, Series I.G (General Files). The very first file of the series also contains a memorandum by Florence Anderson on arrangement and cross-references within the CFAT internal files. The voluminous Carnegie Corporation file includes memoranda regarding Flexner's 1910 medical schools study and the 1931 Report by Howard Savage on relations between the CFAT, CCNY and TIAA. Complementary materials on relations with Carnegie Corporation can be found in series I.B: Meeting Files (in files on Special Committee to Study Policy and Program, Special Committee on Liabilities and Resources, and Joint CFAT- CCNY Committee on the pension load).

Subseries I.D: Financial Records, 1906-1980

Contains general ledgers and cashbooks in oversized bound volumes, investment and tax documentation, budgets and pension summary sheets for the entire New York period of the Foundation’s activity. Robert A. Franks, Andrew Carnegie's close friend and financial agent, served as the CFAT treasurer starting November 1910 and up until his death in 1935. At the same time Franks was the director of the Carnegie Home Trust, a life-time trustee of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, in which he also held the offices of vice-chairman of the Board of Trustees and Treasurer (also until his death in 1935). Moreover, for some years he was treasurer of the Teachers Insurance Annuity Association of America. Additional information can be found in Carnegie Corporation of New York Records, Series VI (files for the CFAT, Carnegie Home Trust and TIAA-CREF), and in the financial records of the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Series II: Staff and Trustee Files, 1900-1980

The series consists of materials pertaining to the founder, Andrew Carnegie; chronological board of trustees’ correspondence, and files on selected individual trustees, containing their biographical information, related news items. Many trustees have also been active in other Carnegie charities, so the trustee/staff files in the related collections (particularly Carnegie Corporation of New York Records, Series I.E) can be consulted for additional information.

Subseries II.A: Andrew Carnegie, 1904-1976

This one manuscript box of materials contains correspondence to and from Andrew Carnegie, correspondence of Foundation staff with Louise Carnegie, and a file on Andrew Carnegie‘s portrait.

Subseries II.B: Chronological Files, 1905-1980

Contains chronological correspondence of the board of trustees as well as biographical data. The first file in the series also contains lists of trustees and their dates of service.

Subseries II.C: Individual Files, 1900-1980

Arranged alphabetically by trustee. Correspondence, obituaries and press coverage, speeches and writings of individual trustees of the foundation. Some also contain biographical notes, and remarks about their personal papers.

Series III: External Correspondence, 1875-1989

Series contains external correspondence of the Foundation. Some prominent correspondents (organizations or individuals) are filed in separate folders under their respective names; the rest were just filed alphabetically. In addition, the series contains several correspondence files organized by subject.

Subseries III.A: Organizations, 1875-1989

Early years contain curriculum data, staff descriptions and statistical information submitted by teaching institutions in order to satisfy CFAT pension requirements; starting in the 1920s the files mostly concern grants for various educational studies, sponsored by CFAT (often with support from CCNY grants). For studied administered directly by the CFAT see Series IV: Projects). Files also contain correspondence with law firms, with other foundations regarding general foundation management, and discussion of various insurance and pension details. The files are arranged alphabetically by organization name. Please note that, while the this finding aid follows the LOC naming conventions, the physical arrangement still follows the CCNY/CFAT filing scheme, so for example the file for “University of Vermont” would be physically filed under “Vermont, University of” (i.e. among organizations starting with letter “V”).

Subseries III.B: Alphabetical, 1915-1954

Three folders of external correspondence that did not merit a separate file are arranged alphabetically by correspondent.

Subseries III.C: Individuals, 1905-1957

Most individual pension files have been discarded, so the series contain only unusual cases or very prominent correspondents (such as former US president Woodrow Wilson). The bulk of the series deals with the retirement pensions, but there is also some correspondence with researchers on CFAT-related topics.

Subseries III.D: Subject Files, 1905-1974

Correspondence on a variety of topics, including education in other countries (Australia, Canada, UK, Near East, Puerto Rico), specific areas of education (dental, engineering, medical, journalism, junior colleges), various other education-related projects, such as Franklin Funds, Maryland education survey, Men and Millions Movement, University system of Georgia and proposed studies on pharmacies and on osteopathy. There are also voluminous files on various “sham universities”, documenting fraudulent attempts to receive CFAT pension or grant funding.

Series IV: Teachers’ Retirement, 1905-1984

The series documents CFAT activities as teacher’s retirement fund, including the collection of data, and the administering the payments. In addition to surveys and lists of educational institutions, and correspondence documenting the first-ever teachers pension plan, the series contains index cards with data on thousands of eligible professors. Once it became clear, that the non-participatory plan is financially untenable, the “Commission on Insurance and Annuities” was formed to consider the plan for what became TIAA. It consisted of six CFAT trustees, 2 members appointed by American Association of University Professors, and one each from the Association of American Universities, National Association of State Universities, and Association of American Colleges. TIAA was officially created in 1917, but the financial obligations to retired teachers and their surviving spouses, incurred by the CFAT in the first dozen years of its existence, continued to require financial and administrative input well into the second half of the twentieth century. More information on the on Foundation’s pension payments and research, and creation of TIAA can be found in CCNY Records Series VI.B (CFAT) and VI.C (TIAA), as well as grant files for Carnegie Foundation and for TIAA in series III.A.

Subseries IV.A: Lists and Memoranda, 1905-1968

This chronologically arranged series contains surveys and lists of organizations and persons, who qualified for CFAT pensions. It details the original pension plan with its mounting problems, the creation of TIAA-CREF and relationship between the two. For more information see also Series I.C (Internal Files).

Subseries IV.B: Pension Studies, 1909-1973

The series contains subject files, documenting research on retirement plans in other occupational areas, such as industrial, federal or railroad pensions, ), and alternative teachers retirement plans in various states (Michigan, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio). Files are arranged alphabetically by subject.

Subseries IV.C: Index Cards, 1953-1984

The series contains index cards listing monthly payments to institutions chronological by year, then alphabetical, and two boxes of index cards for widows’ pensions by name and institution.

Series V: Projects, 1909-1976

Series documents educational research sponsored or administered by CFAT over the years. A major Studies in Higher Education project, administered by Clark Kerr in the 1960s and 1970 is described as a separate series. This series deals with grants-in-aid and early projects and studies, such as founding of the Educational Testing Service, introduction of Graduate Record Examination and College Achievement Tests, Symposia on Academic Disciplines, 1960s surveys on student values and activism, and others. For additional materials on these research projects see the meetings and correspondence series, and Series VI.B of the Carnegie Corporation of New York Records.

Subseries V.A: Grants-in-Aid, 1946-1953

Typewritten cards for a five-year experimental cooperative program of grants-in-aid for college professors. The program, aimed at improving undergraduate instruction through sponsoring faculty research projects, is described in detail in the CFAT 42nd Annual Report of 1946-47. Arranged alphabetically by last name, the cards contain information on recipient’s employment, education, research project, award amount and date. Additional information on Grants-in-Aid can be found in the CCNY Records Series VI.B and III.A (Cooperative experimental programs of Grants in Aid, 1946-1956).

Subseries V.B: Subject Files, 1909-1976

The series starts with a general list of projects and studies (except for the Studies of Higher Education project of 1967-1979), compiled by Florence Anderson in 1979. The list contains cross references and information about the cases where project files were destroyed, or located elsewhere. The rest of the series consists of subject files for these projects. Many of these studies were financed via Carnegie Corporation of New York grants, so further information on them can be found in Series VI.B (CFAT) and series III.A (grant files) of the CCNY Records. For some projects on the list, such as Education in Maritime Provinces of Canada (CFAT bulletin no. 16) all the materials are in the Carnegie Corporation files.

Series VI: Studies in Higher Education, 1959-1981

By 1966 the Foundation’s future was uncertain, and there was a discussion about its possible merger into Carnegie Corporation of New York. The trustees of both organizations decided that it was important to have foundation devoted exclusively to higher education, provided that it could undertake a truly significant project. Thus, the CFAT trustees made a proposal to the Carnegie Corporation for a grant to study the financing of higher education, approved in January 1967. Clark Kerr - then the president of the University of California - agreed to chair the special commission. The Carnegie Commission on Higher Education consisted of 19 people including the chairman. Over the course of their existence, the Commission and its successor organization the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education (since 1973) assembled a wealth of data and published 163 influential monographs, and dozens of pamphlets and brochures. One of the Carnegie Commission’s lasting achievements was a classification scheme that differentiated colleges and universities along the dimensions that were most relevant to the Commission’s analytical work. The classification, made public in 1973, was quickly accepted in the research community as the major way researchers identify groups of roughly comparable institutions. The Carnegie Corporation of New York made annual grants to the CFAT starting in 1967 to cover the expenses of the project. Additional information can be found in the CCNY Records, such as CCNY grant files to the CFAT (CCNY Records, series III.A).

Subseries VI.A: Meeting Minutes, 1967-1979

Meeting minutes of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (1967-1973) and then the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education Commission arranged chronologically.

Subseries VI.B: Internal Files, 1966-1980

Voluminous internal subject files detail all administrative aspects of the commission’s work, such as budget and financial records, personnel policies, hiring of consultants, copyright, publication and dissemination issues, and general correspondence. It further contains correspondence and memo by Clark Kerr, chronological file of Vernon Stadtman, legislative and technical advice, and materials of 1972 Villa Serbelloni conference. Publications files include description of reports, authors, and lists of selected documents in Editorial files (Editorial Files comprise series VI.F of this collection).

Subseries VI.C: Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (CCHE) Research, 1967-1979

Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (CCHE)’s research consisted of 74 numbered research projects and four additional “unnumbered” projects. The Academic adaptation survey project is covered in a separate Subseries VI.I. For the “numbered projects,” the first file of the series contains the list of contract files and numbers. Then 74 project files are arranged in the order of their assigned number. Some of the projects were eventually dropped, others resulted in a monograph. Files of four additional “unnumbered” projects added during the course of the Commission’s work.

Subseries VI.D: Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education (CCPSHE) Research, 1967-1980

Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education (CCPSHE) research. The first file of the series contains the list of contract files and numbers. Then 29 research project files are arranged in the order of their assigned number.

Subseries VI.E: Drafts, Proposals, and Conferences, 1968-1981

Series contains drafts of papers, research proposals, and conference materials, produced by the Council for Policy Studies in Higher Education (CCPSHE), unless otherwise noted. The files are arranged alphabetically by subject, which is either a name of a person or organization, or title of the draft or proposal.

Subseries VI.F: Editorial Files, 1960-1980

The editorial files contain edited drafts, contracts, and correspondence for each of over 80 volumes published by the Commission and the Council. They are arranged alphabetically by the monograph title.

Subseries VI.G: Impact Files, 1967-1980

The files contain the press coverage of Commission’s research, publications, and policy changes they inspired. The Commission and the Council staff has been instructed to maintain as complete a record as possible of the impact of their activities (V. Stadtman’s memo of May 4, 1971). Impact was defined as change or reaction inspired by policies or reports of the commission, such as: announcements of new programs either directly inspired or parallel commission’s recommendations, requests to speak; newspaper editorials, news stories and reviews, requests for publications, requests for permission to reprint, and legislation, which included provisions suggested by the Commission’s reports.

Subseries VI.H: Permissions and Royalties, 1959-1980

Series contains correspondence with the publishers Josey-Bass and McGrow-Hill regarding permissions, royalties, book sales and other publishing matters. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Subseries VI.I: Academic Adaptation Survey, 1974-1979

Academic Adaptation Survey was a separate project on institutional adaptation to changing environment, undertaken by the council in the late 1970s. Materials consist of a sample of 1975-1978 College Handbooks, survey questionnaires, raw data and its statistical analysis.

Subseries VI.J: Background Research Materials, Undated

A box of typewritten and printed documents includes articles, reports and papers on history of US higher education, learning theories, adult education, faculty development and other topics relevant to the work of the Commission/Council.

Series VII: Related Organizations, 1911-1980

Series contains files of two organizations related to CFAT: National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) and International Examinations Enquiry Committee (IEEC). It is not clear how papers ended up in CFAT files, but the organizations were actively collaborating for many years.

Subseries VII.A: National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 1911-1980

The NASULGC is an organization of more than 200 public universities, land-grant colleges, and state university systems. Founded in 1887 as the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations (AAACES), NASULGC is the oldest national association of institutions of higher education. It went through several name changes becoming the Association of Land-Grant Colleges (ALGC) in 1919; then the Association of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities (ALGCU) in 1926. In 1963 it merged with National Association of State Universities (NASU), started in 1896, and the State Universities Association (SUA), founded in 1930, to form the NASULGC. Prior to their merger, the three organizations had overlapping memberships and similar interests but were competitive with each other for many years. The Association of Land-Grant Colleges and Universities created a Washington, D.C., office in 1945, with Russell I. Thackrey as the full-time executive secretary, a position he held through the merger to 1969. The papers in this series cover the period of Thackrey’s management, detailing the mergers and the work of various NASULGC committees, as well as some financial documentation and printed materials.

Subseries VII.B: International Examinations Enquiry Committee (IEEC), 1929-1938

International Examinations Enquiry was an international scientific project, which operated in the 1930s and attracted key world figures in educational research, including major comparative educationalists, New Education Fellowship academics, statisticians and educational psychologists. Originally involving the USA, Scotland, England, France, Germany and Switzerland, it later grew to include Norway, Sweden and Finland. The Committee focused on examination methods for the growing population of secondary school students. The key issues included establishing standardized methods of measurement, international scholarly communication and comparative understandings of national diversity. The series contains subject files on various countries in alphabetical order.

Series VIII: Printed Materials, 1906-1980

Series contains printed materials produced by or relating to CFAT, such as its constitution, by-laws and various pension regulations, annual reports, bulletins, publications of Commission and Council on Higher Education, and other miscellaneous brochures and monographs. Some printed material can also be found in other series of this collection, such as Internal Files (I.C) or Related Organizations (VII). Most printed materials exist in two copies, with one copy shelved in the Carnegie Curator’s office, and the other one boxes and stored off site.

Subseries VIII.A: Annual Reports, 1906-1979

Series contains Annual Reports 1 through 74 in two copies. One copy is stored in Curators Office for easy access; the second (incomplete) run is boxed and stored off site. In addition, the series contains cumulative indices and report reprints.

Subseries VIII.B: Bulletins, 1907-1973

The results of CFAT research projects were published as numbered bulletins. The best-known of them is Bulletin #4: “Medical Education in the United States and Canada” (also known as “the Flexner Report”) of 1910. The Bulletin numbers were assigned chronologically by the Foundation. The collection has a full set of the Bulletins (except missing No. 32), most of them in two copies. The more complete set is stored in Curators Office for easy access; the second one is boxed and stored off site.

Subseries VIII.C: General, 1908-1983

Series contains monographs, articles, brochures and pamphlets either written by the CFAT staff members, or produced as a result of the CFAT-sponsored projects. Arranged alphabetically by title.

Subseries VIII.D: Studies in Higher Education (CCHE & CCPSHE) Monographs, 1968-1980

Over the course of their existence, Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (CCHE) and Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education (CCPSHE) sponsored the creation and publication of 163 monographs, many of lasting influence. The background materials regarding the creation of each volume can be found in the Series VI: Studies in Higher Education. The Subseries contains two sets of monographs, arranged alphabetically by title: one complete set in Curators Office for easy access, the second (incomplete) set is boxed and stored off site. Additional copies of most monographs are also available from the CUL circulating collection.

Subseries VIII.E: Pamphlets and Brochures of CCHE and CCPSHE, 1904-1978

Series contains informational pamphlets and brochures produced by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education and Carnegie Council on Policy Studies over the course of their activities, arranged alphabetically by title.

Series IX: Educational Legislation, 1912-1913

Correspondence and printed materials concerning bills to define education in DC, introduced by Senator Jacob Harold Gallinger, including drafts and copies of several bills, has been added to this collection in 2009 from the Teachers College library. These files have been a gift to the Teachers College from Florence Anderson (a long-time executive of Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching) in 1979.

Series X: Photographs, 1904-1975

This one-box series contains photographs of individual staff and trustee members, several group photos of CCHE and CFAT board of trustees, and published photographs of Carnegie family. Accompanying correspondence and documents are filed with photographs.

Subseries X.A: Group, 1912-1975 undated

Group pictures of CCHE and CFAT board include both formal and candid shots. The series also contains a collection of Carnegie family photographs, apparently cut out of magazines or other publications, and pasted to the cardboard for sturdiness. Files are arranged alphabetically by subject.

Subseries X.B: Individual, 1945-1973

Black and white portrait photos of various sizes depict individual trustees and staff of the CFAT.

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Using the Collection

Offsite

Access Restrictions

 This collection is located offsite. You will need to request this material from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at least two business days in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room.

      offsite requestMore information and link to off-site request form

Restrictions on Use

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish material from the collection must be requested from the Curator of Carnegie Collections, Rare Book and Manuscript Library (RBML). The RBML approves permission to publish that which it physically owns; the responsibility to secure copyright permission rests with the patron.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Records, 1905-1980; Box and Folder; Carnegie Collections, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

Related Collections:

Carnegie Corporation of New York Records, CC#0003 Columbia University Libraries.

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About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries. Rare Book and Manuscript Library; machine readable finding aid created by Columbia University Libraries Digital Library Program Division

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Jane Gorjevsky, Benjamin Heller, CC2009, Sam Daly CC2009, Jude Webre GSAS2010.

The finding aid was written by Jane Gorjevsky in March 2009.

Jennifer S. Comins converted and corrected content for EAD conversion of legacy finding aid, 6/12/2014

Machine readable finding aid generated from MARC-AMC source via XSLT conversion June 26, 2009 Finding aid written in English.
    2009-06-26 File created.

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Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.

Additional Creators

HeadingCUL Archives:
Portal
CUL Collections:
CLIO
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
ArchiveGRID
Butler, Nicholas Murray, 1862-1947.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID

Subjects

HeadingCUL Archives:
Portal
CUL Collections:
CLIO
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
ArchiveGRID
Academic freedom.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Education.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--History.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Carmichael, Oliver C.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Carnegie Commission on Higher Education.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Carnegie Corporation of New York.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Carnegie, Andrew, 1835-1919.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Charitable uses, trusts, and foundations.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
College presidents.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
College sports.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
College students--Political activity.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
College teachers--Pensions--United States.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Division of Educational Enquiry.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Education--Canada.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Education--Great Britain.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Education--United States.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Educational Testing Service.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Educational tests and measurements.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Endowment of research.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Endowments--Officials and employees.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Endowments--United States.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Flexner, Abraham, 1866-1959.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Gifted children.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Graduate Record Examination.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Higher education and state--United States.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Jessup, Walter Albert, 1877-1944.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Kerr, Clark, 1911-2003.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Learned, William S.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Medical education.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Pensions--United States.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Philanthropists.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Pritchett, Henry S. (Henry Smith), 1857-1939.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Professional education.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Psychology--Research.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Suzzallo, Henry, 1875-1933.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Teachers--Pensions--United States.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Teaching--Aims and objectives.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
United States--Social policy.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Universities and colleges--United States--Administration.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Women--Education.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID

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History / Biographical Note

Historical Note

Carnegie Foundation is a philanthropic trust set up by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 as a pension fund for college teachers. In 1906 it was renamed the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT) and its mission was expanded to include educational studies, many of which have profoundly influenced American educational standards and policies.

For the first few years of the Foundation’s existence, its principal function was in selecting eligible institutions and establishing rules for receiving retirement allowances. The resulting financial obligations ended up being greatly in excess of the CFAT resources. By 1917 the CFAT trustees concluded, after an extensive study, that a pension system paid out of income at no cost to beneficiary is expensive beyond all estimates and anticipation. In 1917-1918, under an arrangement negotiated by Andrew Carnegie and the CFAT the Carnegie Corporation of New York gave $1 million to found the Teachers Insurance Annuity Association of America (now TIAA-CREF), an occupation-wide contributory plan, believed by some to embody more closely Carnegie’s original vision of the teachers’ pension plan.

The second purpose of the foundation, educational inquiry, was furthered by its efforts in surveying professional education and fostering professional standards in medicine (Flexner, 1910), law (Reed, 1921), engineering (Mann, 1918), teaching, and other disciplines.

The CFAT was controlled by a self-perpetuating board of 25 trustees, chiefly presidents of colleges and universities. When Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY) was founded in 1911, it shared office space with the Foundation; it was written in its constitution that the CFAT president would always hold one of the CCNY trustee seats. Henry Smith Pritchett was the first CFAT president, followed by Henry Suzzallo (1930-1933), Walter A. Jessup (1933-1944), and Oliver Carmichael (1945–1953). Since 1955, the CCNY president John W. Gardner and then Alan Pifer served as “part-time” CFAT presidents, shouldering the administrative responsibilities, while Clark Kerr was responsible for program.

Throughout the late sixties and seventies, the Carnegie Foundation enjoyed renewed prominence due to the timely policy studies by the Carnegie Commission of Higher Education (and the subsequent Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education) both directed by Clark Kerr and funded by the CCNY. The CFAT was closely affiliated with Carnegie Corporation of New York until the early 1980s, when it moved to new separate headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey. Since 1997, the Carnegie Foundation has been located in California.

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