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   Peter H.L. and Edith Chang Papers, 1930s-2001

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Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Peter H.L. and Edith Chang Papers; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

COinS Metadata available (e.g., for Zotero).

Summary Information

At a Glance

Call No.:MS#0210
Bib ID:6484240 View CLIO record
Creator(s):Zhang, Xueliang, 1898-
Title:Peter H.L. and Edith Chang Papers, 1930s-2001
Physical description:60 linear ft. (46 document boxes; 22 record cartons; 27 card file boxes; 2 mapcases).
Access: The following boxes are located off-site: 46-96. You will need to request this material from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at least twenty-four (24) hours in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room. This collection has no restrictions.  More information »

Arrangement

Arrangement

This collection is arranged into 10 series:

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Description

Scope and Content

Correspondence, manuscripts, notes, documents, artwork, calligraphies, study materials, photographs published material, and clippings, detailing the various stages of the life of Peter and Edith Chang.

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Using the Collection

Partially Offsite

Access Restrictions

 The following boxes are located off-site: 46-96. You will need to request this material from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at least twenty-four (24) hours in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room.

      offsite requestMore information and link to off-site request form

This collection has no restrictions.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Peter H.L. and Edith Chang Papers; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

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About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries. Rare Book and Manuscript Library; machine readable finding aid created by Columbia University Libraries Digital Library Program Division

Processing Information

Papers processed 1993-2009 by various processors.

Machine readable finding aid generated from MARC-AMC source via XSLT conversion June 26, 2009 Finding aid written in English.
    2010-03-09 Legacy finding aid created from Pro Cite.

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Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.

Additional Creators

HeadingCUL Archives:
Portal
CUL Collections:
CLIO
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
ArchiveGRID
Zhang, Xueliang, 1898-PortalCLIOArchiveGRID

Subjects

HeadingCUL Archives:
Portal
CUL Collections:
CLIO
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
ArchiveGRID
Chiang, Kai-shek, 1887-1975.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Foreign relations--Japan.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History--Republic, 1912-1949.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History--Xi'an Incident, 1936.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Generals--China.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
OccupationPortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Zhang, Xueliang, 1898-PortalCLIOArchiveGRID

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History / Biographical Note

Biographical Note

Peter Chang (his name also rendered as Zhang Xueliang, and Chang Hsueh-liang) was born in Manchuria in 1901 and died in Hawaii in 2001. After his father Chang Tso-lin Zhang Zuolin, a leading war-lord known as the Old Marshal, was assassinated in 1928 by the Japanese, Chang took his place as the Young Marshal, becoming one of the most powerful military figures in China.

In 1930 Chang became Deputy Commander in Chief of the Chinese Armed Forces. In 1933 he traveled to Europe. Upon his return to China, Zhou Enlai convinced him of the need for a united front between the Nationalist and Communist Chinese against Japan.

On December 4, 1936, Chiang Kai-shek, the Nationalist leader, met with Marshal Chang in Xian, ostensibly to plan a campaign against the Communists that was due to begin on December 12. Chang arrested Chiang Kai-shek, an event that became known around the world as the Xian incident. Two weeks later Chiang was released after agreeing to work with the Communists in fighting the Japanese.

After the Xian incident Marshal Chang might have chosen to join the Communists. Instead he surrendered to Chiang Kai-shek who placed him under house arrest. This was his status for the next fifty years, even after the Nationalists fled to Taiwan taking Chang with them. As he said in 1991 in his first interview after recovering his freedom, "It was a rebellion and I had to take responsibility for it".

During his long period of confinement on Taiwan, Marshal Chang lived comfortably in a house with an extensive garden selected by Chiang Kai-shek son, Chiang Ching-kuo, who succeeded his father as President of Taiwan. During this time Chang became a Baptist and spent many hours writing, reading the Bible, and studying history. The house was filled with paintings and calligraphy honoring the Chiang family, including a number that were drawn by Madame Chang Kai-shek. Many of these items are now at Columbia in the Chang Papers.

After his release Marshall Chang settled in Hawaii in 1995 with his second wife Yi Di Zhao, known as Edith Chang who predeceased him by one year. The daughter of a senior official, she had left her family while still in her teens to become his companion, later following him into exile on Taiwan. Her devotion so moved Chang's first wife Yu Feng-chih that she released him from his marriage vows.

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